• BA in Economics, magna cum laude, minor in History from Michigan State University, 1963
  • MA in Economics, minor in Statisitcs, University of Minnesota, 1967
  • Completed course work and preliminary exam for Ph.D in Economics, University of Minnesota
  • All three degrees included many courses in art history and considerable independent study and formal, non-degree study in the visual arts


  • Workshop on strategies for writing on popular culture, Minneapolis College of Art and Design and Center for Art Criticism
  • Video workshop on art criticism, UC Video
  • Intensive workshop on architectural criticism, Center for Art Criticism, conducted by Michael Sorkin